Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA)
Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA) serves as a diagnostic method for evaluating the state of the cardiovascular system. This entails ongoing examination of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and the pulse pressure waveform. The pulse pressure wave is shaped through the mixture of the direct systolic wave and waves reflected back from the periphery.
Basically, there are 2 parameters related to Pulse Wave Analysis.
Central Systolic Blood Pressure (SBPao):
Central systolic blood pressure (SBPao) is described as the highest pressure observed in the aorta when the heart contracts, pushing blood from the left ventricle into the aorta. It offers a more direct indication of the hemodynamic load on the heart and brain than the brachial systolic blood pressure (SBPbr). Moreover, research studies demonstrate that SBPao is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than SBPbr.
Augmentation Index (AI):
The augmentation index (AI) is an indirect way to measure how stiff the arteries are, and its value tends to increase as a person gets older. The Augmentation Pressure (AG) is calculated based on the difference of the direct (forward) pressure wave (generated by the left ventricular ejection) and a reflected wave, created by the impedance differences along the peripheral arteries.
Utilizing Pulse Wave Analysis Parameters in Clinical Routine
In medical science, parameters are the most important components of any analyses and consequently any treatments. 15 different parameters can be measured and analysed by Arteriograph and Arteriograph 24. The value of Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA) has been proven in many clinical conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), hypertension, diabetes and preeclampsia.
How does Arteriograph perform a Pulse Wave Analysis?
Arteriograph measures the first and the reflective pressure waves precisely. But the measured data needs to be interpreted and different markers will be concluded from them. This process is the base of pulse wave analysis.
Processing raw data obtained by Arteriograph can be done by the specialised software through series of evaluations. The result will be represented as pulse wave analysis and include various information.
Through pulse wave analysis, one can evaluate the relation of two waves together, the intensity and time difference between them and can conclude several physiologically important data, each explaining a specific phenomenon.
In the following section you can access the two main parameter groups resulting from pulse wave analysis: Augmentation Index (AIx) & Central Systolic Blood Pressure, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (PWVao), measured separately by the devices of TensioMed Ltd. Furthermore, other informative parameters of pulse wave analysis can come in handy to gain a comprehensive view of the patient’s central hemodynamic state.
However, the examination of the above-mentioned parameters has not yet become part of the daily routine in clinical work, the new non-invasive measurement technology, the Arteriograph offers a solution to eliminate the difficulties in detecting pathological central hemodynamic changes in hypertension, atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, preeclampsia and chronic kidney diseases (CKD).